Notes

1. This is a mistranscription of "a Ribes." Evidently the editors of the 1906 edition of Thoreau's Journal incorrectly transcribed Thoreau's "a Ribes" as "A. Ribes." The specimen in Thoreau's herbarium associated with this citation is Ribes cynosbati forma inerma, a prickleless form of PRICKLY GOOSEBERRY.

2. These two species were not distinguished from each other in the manuals used by Thoreau.

3. It is possible that some references are to Populus canescens (GRAY POPLAR), a species planted in Concord and often considered a variety of P. alba (WHITE POPLAR) in Thoreau's time. The specimen in Thoreau's herbarium labeled "Populus alba" is Populus alba in the restricted modern sense.

4. This is a Mediterranean plant whose stylized leaves are used in architecture and decorative arts.

5. The name "Agrimonia eupatoria" encompasses four modern species in New England. The two species recorded in Concord are Agrimonia gryposepala and Agrimonia striata.

6. The assignment of specific names to "Agrostis alba" and "Agrostis vulgaris" of Thoreau's time presents a problem since the species descriptions in Gray's Manual of Botany (2nd ed.) agree essentially with the modern Agrostis alba and Agrostis tenuis, respectively, except for the feature that gives them their common names, namely, the color of the panicle. Not only are the common names reversed but also the designation as to whether they are native or introduced. It is presumed here that Thoreau applied his scientific names on the basis of the salient feature, panicle color, rather than on a key character that he does not mention. This results in reliance upon the common names of Thoreau's time to translate Thoreau's scientific and common names in this instance.

7. Included here would be Acalypha rhomboidea (THREE­SIDED MERCURY), not distinguished in the manuals used by Thoreau.

8. This name is a mistranscription.

9. "Alsine" literally corresponds to Arenaria spp. (SANDWORT). However, the context clearly indicates the identity of the plant.

10. This name in Thoreau's time encompassed all of the New England species.

11. Included here would be Amelanchier laevis, Amelanchier stolonifera, and Amelanchier arborea for the Concord area in addition to Amelanchier canadensis in the restricted modern sense. In Thoreau's time this last name included all New England species.

12. These citations indicate a general sense including two or more of the following: Chamaedaphne calyculata (LEATHERLEAF), Lyonia ligustrina (MALEBERRY), Andromeda glaucophylla (BOG ROSEMARY), and Leucothoe racemosa (SWAMP SWEETBELLS).

13. This is probably Cladrastis lutea (YELLOWWOOD).

14. Citation IV 163 also refers to this form.

15. The mystery grass referred to on XI 157, which is represented by a specimen in Thoreau's herbarium, has been identified as this species.

16. A form intermediate between Apocynum androsaemifolium and Apocynum cannabinum and treated as a separate species, Apocynum medium, was not distinguished in Thoreau's time. Thoreau's references may include this form, but it is uncommon in Concord.

17. The specimen in Thoreau's herbarium associated with the citation(s) has been identified as Apocynum cannabinum (INDIAN HEMP).

18. This name in Thoreau's time encompassed several modern species. The common species in Concord is Chenopodium album (LAMB S­QUARTERS) in the restricted modern sense.

19. The first three citations actually refer to Arabis drummondi (DRUMMOND'S ROCK CRESS). Arabis laevigata is unknown in Concord.

20. The identity of this citation is unknown. Very likely it does not refer to a vascular plant.

21. This parasitic plant was undescribed scientifically in Thoreau's time. Thoreau's description of this locally rare species in these two citations is unmistakable and is supported by twentieth­century botanical collections from the same site (now destroyed).

22. The plant referred to at this citation is almost certainly Sagina procumbens (MATTED PEARLWORT).

23. The only two species of this genus that occur in Concord are Arisaema atrorubens (JACK­IN­THE­PULPIT) and Arisaema stewardsonii (NORTHERN JACK­IN­THEPULPIT), which were not distinguished from each other in Thoreau's time.

24. This name as used in Thoreau's time encompassed several modern species.

25. The specimen in Thoreau's herbarium associated with this name is not Aster laevis. The actual identity of the plant is uncertain. It appears to be a form of, or a hybrid involving, Aster lateriflorus (CALICO ASTER).

26. Some of the first six citations apparently refer to Aster vimineus (SMALL WHITE ASTER). See V 402.

27. Although botanically "Aster longifolius" translates into "Aster simplex" (PANICLED ASTER), the description in Gray's Manual of Botany (2nd ed.) corresponds to Aster novi­belglii (NEW YORK ASTER). The specimens in Thoreau's herbarium seem to indicate that he applied the name to both A. simplex and A. novi­belgii.

28. This is a mistranscription of "Aster prenanthoides." The identity of the plant is evidently Aster foliaceus (LEAFY­BRACTED ASTER), based on the date, the site, and similarity to Aster prenanthoides in some characters.

29. The first citation is probably not a specific aster. The second citation together with V 402 indicates Aster vimineus (SMALL WHITE ASTER).

30. The specimens in Thoreau's herbarium to which he applied this name are Aster simplex (PANICLED ASTER).

31. Aster tradescanti in the modern sense has not been recorded in Massachusetts.

32. The common, introduced species in the Concord area is Morus alba (WHITE MULBERRY).

33. Ernest Wilson and Alfred Rehder in their monograph on azaleas indicate that this name is of doubtful validity and that the plant to which it was originally applied is probably an unusual form of mountain laurel (Kalmia latifolia forma monstrosa).

34. This name does not exist in the botanical literature of Thoreau's time or in modern synonymies. It is evidently spurious, originating with the collector Mr. Higginson. The plant is undoubtedly either Barbarea vulgaris (COMMON WINTER CRESS) or Barbarea verna (EARLY WINTER CRESS), the only two species known to occur in Massachusetts.

35. The other species of barberry that now occurs in the region, JAPANESE BARBERRY (Berberis thunbergii), was not introduced into New England until after Thoreau's death.

36. Two additional Echinocloa species have been recorded in Concord but are found in wet habitats and are uncommon.

37. Thoreau's identification is in error since this species in New England is restricted to Vermont, western Massachusetts, and northwestern Connecticut. He probably applied the name to Streptopus amplexifolius (TWISTED STALK), whose foliage and aspect are similar to Uvularia grandiflora.

38. The species involved is almost certainly Agrostis alba var. palustris (CREEPING BENT), on the basis of color (VI 285) and habitat.

39. Citation IX 414 refers to either Betula alba (EUROPEAN WHITE BIRCH) or Betula pendula (EUROPEAN WEEPING BIRCH).

40. In Thoreau's time Megalodonta beckii (WATER­MARIGOLD) was also included in this genus and was called "Bidens beckii."

41. Included here would be Bidens comosa (LEAFY­BRACTED BUR­MARIGOLDI), not distinguished in Thoreau's time.

42. Included here would be Bidens vulgata (TALL BEGGAR­TICKS), not distinguished in Thoreau's time.

43. "Bilberry" properly applies to a specific subgroup of Vaccinium (a subgroup whose species tend to occur in mountains or northern areas and which differ in several technical features from ordinary blueberries). Thoreau's citation XI 17 uses "bilberry" in this restricted sense. The remainder of his citations use the name in an older, broader sense that would probably include all blueberries.

44. The particular specimen that Thoreau compares with red birch is evidently Betula papyrifera var. cordifolia (HEART­LEAVED BIRCH).

45. This might be Betula papyrifera var. cordifolia (HEART­LEAVED BIRCH), judging from the habitats and locales indicated.

46. Thoreau misapplies this name.

47. Gray's Manual of Thoreau's time considered Vaccinium atrococcum as a variety of Vaccinium corymbosum. V. corymbosum is much more common in Concord than V. atrococcum.

48. In Concord this name refers only to Vaccinium angustifolium (EARLY LOW BLUEBERRY} and Vaccinium vacillans (LATE LOW BLUEBERRY). Elsewhere in New England additional Vaccinium species are included.

49. P. americana is not native to the Concord area but is occasionally planted. P. aucuparia is frequently planted and occasionally escapes.

50. Included here should also be Botrychium matricariaefolium (DAISY­LEAF GRAPE­FERN), not clearly distinguished in the manuals used by Thoreau. However, there is no indication in the context of the citations that Thoreau ever saw this furtive, locally rare species.

51. The other species of buckthorn that now occurs in the region, GLOSSY BUCKTHORN (Rhamnus frangula), was not naturalized in New England until after Thoreau's death.

52. Most of Thoreau's citations refer to Scirpus validus (GREAT BULRUSH).

53. A particular species cannot be assigned with certainty, but BURDOCK (Arctium spp.} is the most likely genus on the basis of the context.

54. Sparganium chlorocarpum was not distinguished in Thoreau's time and is scarce in Concord.

55. This is probably Sparganium eurycarpum (GREAT BUR­REED).

56. This is evidently a playful modification of BUR­REED (Sparganium spp.}, judging from the context.

57. Thoreau uses the combination "white buttercup" only by way of comparison and not in reference to a particular buttercup.

58. For those citations referring to planted trees, Platanus acerifolia (LONDON PLANE­TREE) cannot be ruled out as a possibility.

59. Thoreau did not apply this name consistently to a particular species. Citations V 322 and VI 395 refer to Pycnanthemum muticum (SHORT­TOOTHED MOUNTAIN MINT), while II 461 and XIII 310 refer to Pycnanthemum incanum (HOARY MOUNTAIN MINT). The other citations probably refer to one of these two species.

60. The two species found in Concord, C. palustris and C. heterophylla, were not distinguished from each other in the manuals used by Thoreau.

61. This is a mistranscription of "Campanula erinoides."

62. Included here would be Carex brunnescens (BROWNISH SEDGE), not distinguished as a separate species in the manuals used by Thoreau.

63. This species belongs to a subgroup of Carex (i.e., Ovales section) in which many more species are distinguished now than in Thoreau's time. Without a specimen collected by Thoreau the actual identities of the plants in the citations are impossible to determine.

64. The context of this citation indicates that the identity of the plant is most likely Carex laxiculmis (SPREADING SEDGE), but Carex laxiflora is also a possibility.

65. Included here would also be Carex emmonsii (EMMON'S SEDGE).

66. This species is unknown in the Concord area. The actual identity of the plant referred to is unclear. A specimen in Thoreau's herbarium with this name offered as an alternative to "Carex mobile" has been identified as Carex vesicaria (INFLATED SEDGE).

67. Specimens in Thoreau's herbarium associated with these two citations have been identified as Carex convoluta (STAR SEDGE), which was not distinguished from Carex rosea in Thoreau's time.

68. This species belongs to a group within Carex (i.e., Ovales section) in which many more species are distinguished now than in Thoreau's time. While Carex scoparia in the restricted modern sense is common in the Concord area, some citations may refer to other species. Examples in Thoreau's herbarium of additional species included under this name are C. cumulata, C. brevior, and C. alata.

69. This species belongs to a group within Carex (i.e., Stellulatae section) in which many more species are distinguished now than in Thoreau's time. Examples in Thoreau's herbarium of additional species included under this name are C. cephalantha (the most common), C. incomperta, and C. angustior.

70. This species belongs to a group within Carex (i.e., Ovales section) in which many more species are distinguished now than in Thoreau's time. Examples in Thoreau's herbarium of additional species included under this name are C. alata, C. festucacea, and C. cumulata.

71. A specimen in Thoreau's herbarium to which he applied this name has been identified as Carex artitecta.

72. Thoreau misapplies the name. This species has not been recorded in the Concord area, and the nuts would be bitter. The tree in question is Carya ovalis (SWEET PIGNUT HICKORY).

73. Included here would be Carya ovalis (SWEET PIGNUT HICKORY), not distinguished in Thoreau's time and regarded by some modern botanists as merely a variety of Carya glabra (PIGNUT HICKORY). C. ovalis is more common in Concord than C. glabra.

74. All citations refer to Smilax rotundifolia (COMMON GREENBRIER) with the possible exception of IX 135,185,321.

75. The sense here is general, including Thuja spp., Chamaecyparis spp., and Juniperus spp.

76. The only Centaurea species represented in Thoreau's herbarium is Centaurea nigra (BLACK KNAPWEED).

77. The descriptions of Cerastium vulgatum and Cerastium viscosum in Gray's Manual of Botany (2nd ed.) are interchanged in comparison to the modern descriptions. Consequently, the species to which Thoreau applied this name is actually Cerastium vulgatum (COMMON MOUSE­EAR CHICKWEED), which is abundant in Concord.

78. Ceratophyllum demersum and Ceratophyllum echinatum were usually considered varieties of the same species in Thoreau's time. C. echinatum in the restricted modern sense has not been recorded in Concord but might occur.

79. It appears that Thoreau does not apply this name correctly until IV 130. The identity of earlier references is uncertain but is most likely Prunus pensylvanica (PIN CHERRY). Citation II 126 might refer to CHOKEBERRY (Pyrus spp.).

80. These two species are very similar. Prunus avium is more commonly planted, and therefore more likely to be the particular species that Thoreau refers to.

81. Thoreau means to write "P. pensylvanica" at this particular citation instead of "P. virginiana."

82. It is not evident that Thoreau intends a particular species by this name. The context of the citations indicates the tree species Prunus serotina (BLACK CHERRY) or Prunus pensylvanica (PIN CHERRY). Citation II 201 refers to the former.

83. Thoreau corrects the citation on IV 410 to what is now Lycopodium obscurum (TREE CLUBMOSS).

84. The context of citation VI 124 indicates that Chimaphila maculata (STRIPED WINTERGREEN) is intended.

85. These two species were considered varieties of one species in Thoreau's time.

86. A particular species of Potentilla is not intended. The usage is merely for comparative purposes.

87. Thoreau was unable to distinguish clearly between Circaea quadrisulcata and Circaea alpina using the inadequate manuals available to him. The two are distinguished best by using minute characters he does not mention. Those plants that are taller than one foot are almost certainly C. quadrisulcata. Those plants he mentions as being shorter than one foot could be either species.

88. The name "fiddlewood" is also applied to true members of the genus Citharexylum in the restricted modern sense.

89. A specific identity cannot be determined with certainty, but Agrostemma githago (CORN COCKLE) seems to be the most likely possibility.

90. Old usage applied the name "Convallaria" to Maianthemum canadense (CANADA MAYFLOWER), Smilacina spp. (FALSE SOLOMON'S­SEAL), Polygonatum spp. (SOLOMON 'S­SEAL), and Convallaria majalis (LILY­OF­THE­VALLEY).

91. The citation on IV 296 is a misidentification of Corallorhiza (LARGE CORALROOT}. The mistake is noted on IV 305.

92. Cornus obliqua would be included with Cornus amomum. C. obliqua was not distinguished in the manuals used by Thoreau and is not distinguished as a species by many modern botanists.

93. Thoreau is mistaken in stating that Bigelow's Cornus alba is equivalent to Gray's Cornus paniculata.

94. The true identity of the plant at the citation(s) is probably Cornus racemosa (GRAY DOGWOOD, PANICLED DOGWOOD).

95. This particular citation refers to Corylus americana (AMERICAN HAZELNUT).

96. Thoreau's identification is probably in error since the "cotton" of this species is typically rust colored.

97. This name has been applied to a number of different types of trees. The most likely species being referred to is Bombax ceiba (COTTON­TREE), a South American tree.

98. This name would encompass many species distinguished in the twentieth century. As applied in Concord it probably refers to Crataegus macrosperma (VARIABLE THORN), the most common species.

99. Included here would be Crataegus succulenta var. macracantha (LONG­SPINED THORN), not distinguished in the manuals used by Thoreau.

100. Included here would be Crataegus monogyna (SINGLESEED HAWTHORN) not distinguished in the manuals used by Thoreau.

101. Thoreau intends to indicate rocket cress rather than rock cress, the identity of the plant.

102. Thoreau's identification is clearly in error since this is a summer and fall blossoming species. His description on III 473 indicates Antennaria spp. (PUSSYTOES) The most likely possibility is Antennaria neodioica var. chlorophylla (SMALLER PUSSYTOES), a variety that is rare in Concord.

103. Thoreau evidently intends "Missouri currant."

104. The Princeton edition transcribes citation I 138 as "cut grass" (i 126), which probably would not refer to a particular species.

105. Included here would be Cyperus rivularis (SHINING CYPERUS), not distinguished in the manuals used by Thoreau. One specimen in Thoreau's herbarium to which he applied the name "Cyperus diandrus" has been identified as Cyperus rivularis.

106 The most likely species intended is Chrysanthemum leucanthemum (OX­EYE DAISY). Also a possibility is Thoreau's "white daisy," Erigeron strigosus (LESSER DAISY FLEABANE).

107. Included here would be Danthonia alleni {ALLEN'S WILD OAT­GRASS), not distinguished in Thoreau's time.

108. This species has never been found in New England, and Thoreau's application of the name in the two citations is tentative. The plant in question is probably Desmodium marylandicum (MARYLAND TICK­TREFOIL).

109. The berries of Clintonia borealis (CLINTONIA) are inedible though not actually poisonous.

110. Most, if not all, citations refer to the common species Apocynum androsaemifolium (SPREADING DOGBANE).

111. Included here would be Elatine minima (SMALL WATERWORT), not distinguished in the manuals used by Thoreau. E. minima is the only species of the two that has been recorded in Concord, and that from Walden Pond

112. Included here would be Eleocharis smallii (SMALL'S SPIKE.RUSH), not distinguished in the manuals used by Thoreau. Many modern botanists combine the two under E. smallii.

113. Virtually every citation refers to Ulmus americana (AMERICAN ELM), the common species. Ulmus rubra (SLIPPERY ELM) and the cultivated European elms were rare in Concord. Pratt's elm (IV 448) was U. americana and very likely Cheney's elm as well.

114. This species is not known to occur in eastern Massachusetts.

115. Included here would be Empetrum atropurpureum (PURPLE CROWBERRY), not distinguished from E. nigrum in Thoreau's time.

116. Included here would be Epilobium glandulosum (NORTHERN WILLOWHERB), not distinguished in the manuals used by Thoreau. It is widespread in Massachusetts but not yet recorded in Concord.

117. It is very likely that all these citations refer actually to Epilobium leptophyllum (NARROW­LEAVED WILLOW­HERB). E. strictum has not been recorded in Concord and is distinguished in modern manuals using characters not emphasized in the manuals used by Thoreau.

118. The specimens labeled "Eragrostis capillaris (pectinacea)" in Thoreau's her" barium associated with XI 124,150 have been identified as Eragrostis pectinacea (INDIA LOVE­GRASS). A specimen labeled "Eragrostis capillaris" associated with XI 150 has been identified as Muhlenbergia uniflora (FALL DROPSEED).

119. Included here would be Eragrostis spectabilis (PURPLE LOVE­GRASS), not properly distinguished in Thoreau's time.

120. This is most likely to be Erigeron annuus (DAISY FLEABANE).

121. Included here would be Eriophorum tenellum (ROUGH COTTON­GRASS), not properly distinguished in the manuals used by Thoreau. E. gracile has not been recorded in Concord but might occur. The specimen in Thoreau's herbarium associated with XII 235 has been identified as Eriophorum tenellum.

122. The specimen in Thoreau's herbarium associated with XI 141 has been identified as Eriophorum virginicum (TAWNY COTTON­GRASS).

123. Included here would be some species not generally distinguished in the manuals used by Thoreau. Most, if not all, citations refer to Eupatorium dubium (EASTERN JOE­PYE­WEED). E. purpureum in the restricted modern sense and E. fistulosum (TRUMPETWEED) have not been recorded in Concord but might occur.

124. Thoreau's use of "evergreen" usually does not refer to a particular genus or species. However, II 304 (in conjunction with VI 12) appears to refer to Lycopodium obscurum (TREE CLUBMOSS).

125. The latter species was not distinguished in Thoreau's time. It has not been recorded in Concord but might occur.

126. These two species were not distinguished in the manuals used by Thoreau. The former species is common in Concord; the record for the latter species in Concord is in question.

127. The specimen in Thoreau's herbarium associated with XII 208 has been identified as Festuca ovina. Other specimens, collected before and after this one, to which Thoreau applied this name have been identified as Danthonia spicata (COMMON WILD OAT­GRASS) and Danthonia alleni (ALLEN'S WILD OAT­GRASS). It is possible that some of the citations refer to Festuca rubra (RED FESCUE GRASS).

128. While "flag" may also refer to Acorus calamus (SWEET FLAG, CALAMUS) or Iris spp. (IRIS), it appears from the context of the citations that Thoreau intends primarily (if not exclusively) Typha spp.

129. This is most likely Erigeron annuus (DAISY FLEABANE).

130. This is possibly the European species Myosotis sylvatica (WOOD FORGETME­NOT), commonly cultivated.

131. This is probably the common species Alopecurus pratensis (MEADOW FOXTAIL).

132. The identity of the plants associated with all uses of this name might actually be Galium triflorum (SWEET­SCENTED BEDSTRAW) since the specimen in Thoreau's herbarium from Lee's Cliff labeled "Galium aparine" has been identified as G. triflorum, and Thoreau expresses uncertainty on VI 337 about distinguishing the two species.

133. This species is not known in New England.

134. Most citations probably refer to Galium palustre (MARSH BEDSTRAW), which is frequent in Concord and not distinguished from Galium trifidum in the editions of Gray's Manual of Botany that Thoreau used. G. trifidum in the restricted modern sense is rare in Concord.

135. Included here would be Gentiana clausa (CLOSED GENTIAN), not distinguished from G. andrewsii in the manuals used by Thoreau.

136. Citations to "polygonum" in the Concord area do not include Tovara virginiana (VIRGINIA KNOTWEED), which was unknown in the area in Thoreau's time.

137. Included here would be Geranium bicknellii (BICKNELL'S CRANESBILL), which was not distinguished in Thoreau's time.

138. Gerardia purpurea in the restricted modern sense occurs only near the coast in New England. All of Thoreau's uses of the name apply to G. paupercula, which occurs inland and was not distinguished from G. purpurea in his time.

139. Geum laciniatum was not distinguished in the manuals used by Thoreau from Geum virginianum in the restricted modern sense. This latter species is unknown in the Concord area.

140. The specimen labeled "Glyceria elongata" in Thoreau's herbarium associated with XIII 387 has been identified as Glyceria canadensis (RATTLESNAKE GRASS).

141. These two species were not distinguished in Thoreau's time from Glyceria fluitans in the restricted modern sense. This latter species is known in New England only in Nantucket.

142. It is unclear under which name Thoreau included this common grass. Possibilities are "Glyceria pallida," "meadow­grass," and "fowl­meadow grass." The species Poa palustris (FOWL­MEADOW GRASS) resembles Glyceria striata, and the common name has been applied to both species.

143. The context is not sufficient to determine which of these two species is indicated.

144. Goodyera and Spiranthes were once considered to belong to the same genus, Neottia. The apparent combination "Goodyera gracilis" does not exist, but the entity intended is clear. Spiranthes lacera and Spiranthes gracilis were not distinguished from each other in the manuals used by Thoreau.

145. Goodyera repens (DWARF RATTLESNAKE­PLANTAIN) in the restricted modern sense is unknown in the Concord area. G. tesselata was not distinguished from it in the manuals used by Thoreau.

146. The only gooseberry native to Concord is Ribes hirtellum (SMOOTH GOOSEBERRY).

147. The common species in the Concord area is Vitis labrusca (FOX GRAPE).

148. The common species in the Concord area is Gratiola aurea (GOLDEN HEDGE HYSSOP).

149. The referent of these two citations seems to be Vaccinium spp. (BLUEBERRY, CRANBERRY)/Gaylussacia spp. (HUCKLEBERRY).

150. This is not a particular plant but refers to a tree in a "greenwood." See also II 144.

151. The identity of this citation is uncertain but might be Thoreau's "hedgehog sedge," Cyperus esculentus (YELLOW NUTGRASS).

152. The two species recorded in Concord are Stachys tenuifolia (COMMON HEDGE NETTLE) and Stachys palustris (MARSH HEDGE NETTLE). The former species is the more common one.

153. Included here would be Helianthemum bicknellii (HOARY FROSTWEED), not distinguished in Thoreau's time.

154. The citation's context is insufficient to determine whether Cicuta maculata (WATER HEMLOCK, SPOTTED COWBANE) or Conium maculatum (POISON HEMLOCK) is intended. Both are poisonous. The former is common in Concord and is native. The latter is an escape (an introduced plant that spreads into the wild) in New England that has yet to be recorded in Concord.

155. It is likely that the identity of the plant in question is Galeopsis tetrahit (HEMP NETTLE), which resembles Urtica dioica (STINGING NETTLE).

156. Citation VII 383 evidently turns out to be Alopecurus spp. (FOXTAIL).

157. This species has not been recorded in Concord. Thoreau evidently mistook some specimens of Hieracium venosum (RATTLESNAKE­WEED) and Hieracium scabrum (ROUGH HAWKWEED) for it (as he realized himself eventually).

158. Houstonia caerulea (BLUETS) is the common species in New England.

159. Citations in volumes I­III may include Vaccinium spp. (BLUEBERRY). In volume IV Thoreau begins to understand the different species of BLUEBERRY and HUCKLEBERRY that occur in Concord. Citations in volumes V­XIV usually use the term "huckleberry" in the restricted botanical sense of Gaylussacia spp., especially G. baccata (BLACK HUCKLEBERRY), which is the common species in the Concord area.

160. This is a type of gall, most likely the fungus Exobasidium uaccinii.

161. This species is not known in New England. From Thoreau's description on VIII 427­28 the actual identity is almost certainly Hypericum majus (LARGER CANADA ST. JOHN'S­WORT), a species not distinguished in Thoreau's time.

162. Included here would be Hypericum boreale (NORTHERN ST. JOHN'S WORT), not distinguished in Thoreau's time.

163. The context seems to indicate that this is a mistranscription of "interrupted fern," Osmunda claytoniana (INTERRUPTED FERN). However, Dryopteris spinulosa var. intermedia {SPINULOSE WOODFERN) is a possibility.

164. The name "Iris virginica" can be associated with three modern species: I. versicolor, I. virginica, or I. prismatica. The manuals Thoreau used applied it to the iris similar to, but smaller than, I. versicolor. In New England this would be Iris prismatica (SLENDER BLUE FLAG).

165. The name "iron­wood" has been applied to Ostrya virginiana (EASTERN HOPHORNBEAM) and Carpinus caroliniana (AMERICAN HORNBEAM). Citation V 227 suggests that Thoreau applied it to Ostrya virginiana.

166. This is not a plant name. See the last sentence of Thoreau's "A Yankee in Canada."

167. These two citations refer to Hypericum perforatum (COMMON ST. JOHN'S­WORT).

168. This is probably Hypericum majus (LARGER CANADA ST. JOHN'S­WORT).

169. The specimen in Thoreau's herbarium associated with citation XI 137 has been identified as Juncus brevicaudatus (NARROW RUSH).

170. The specimen in Thoreau's herbarium associated with this citation has been identified as Juncus canadensis (MARSH RUSH).

171. Specimens in Thoreau's herbarium to which he applied this name have been identified as Juncus pelocarpus (BROWN­FRUITED RUSH). The description of Juncus conradi in Gray's Manual of Botany (2nd ed.) corresponds to a species known in New England only in Maine (Juncus subtilis).

172. This species has not been recorded in Concord. Specimens in Thoreau's herbarium associated with citations X 392 and XIII 321 have been identified as Juncus balticus (SHORE RUSH).

173. This name includes several modern species. Of these only Juncus canadensis and Juncus brevicaudatus are known in Concord. The specimens in Thoreau's herbarium to which he applied this name have been identified as Juncus canadensis (MARSH RUSH).

174. This species is not known in New England. The specimens in Thoreau's herbarium to which he applied this name have been identified as Juncus canadensis (MARSH RUSH).

175. Included here would be Juncus platyphyllus and Juncus secundus, not distinguished in the manuals used by Thoreau.

176. Only a few ambiguous citations (III 292, IV 221, VIII 423, X 19, and XI 402) might apply to Juglans nigra (BLACK WALNUT), which is not native to the Concord area.

177. This name could refer to Viola pallens (NORTHERN WHITE VIOLET), Viola blanda (SWEET WHITE VIOLET), or Viola incognita (LARGE­LEAVED WHITE VIOLET). V. pallens is the common species in the Concord area, while the latter two species are rare.

178. Larix laricina (TAMARACK) is the only species of this genus native to New England. However, Larix decidua (EUROPEAN LARCH) is frequently planted in yards and parks but rarely escapes to the wild.

179. The description for this name in Bigelow's Florula Bostoniensis corresponds best to Lechea intermedia (INTERMEDIATE PINWEED) of those species that occur in the Concord area.

180. Citations XIV 67, 68 refer only to Spirodela polyrhiza (WATER­FLAXSEED).

181. This is evidently a mistranscription of "Lespedeza angustifolia," referring to Lespedeza violacea var. angustifolia, which is the modern Lespedeza virginica (SLENDER BUSH­CLOVER).

182. Lespedeza stuevei in the restricted modern sense is unknown in the Concord area. The specimen in Thoreau's herbarium to which he applied this name has been identified as Lespedeza nuttallii (NUTTALL'S BUSH­CLOVER).

183. Included here would also be Lespedeza virginica (SLENDER BUSH CLOVER) and Lespedeza intermedia (WAND­LIKE BUSH­CLOVER). The specimens in Thoreau's herbarium labeled "Lespedeza violacea" by him have been identified as Lespedeza nuttallii (NUTTALL'S BUSH­CLOVER) and L. intermedia (WAND­LIKE BUSH CLOVER). Lespedeza violacea in the restricted modern sense has not been recorded in Concord but might occur.

184. This name embraces about six modern species. The only one of these that occurs in New England is Liatris borealis (NORTHERN BLAZING­STAR).

185. This name encompasses Nymphaea odorata (SWEET­SCENTED WATER LILY), Nuphar spp. (YELLOW POND LILY), Lilium spp. (LILY), and Hemerocallis fulva (DAY LILY). Citations referring to pads or an aquatic habitat indicate either Nymphaea odorata or Nuphar spp. Citation VI 450 is intended (mistakenly) in the sense of "Liliaceae (LILY FAMILY)."

186. This name usually refers to Lilium philadelphicum (WOOD LILY) but here is used as a local name for another species.

187. This might be either Robinia viscosa (CLAMMY LOCUST) or Robinia hispida (BRISTLY LOCUST).

188. Aside from citation VII 75, which refers specifically to Nelumbo lutea (AMERICAN LOTUS), Thoreau uses this name for purposes of comparison. Nelumbo nucifera is the SACRED LOTUS of India. Nymphaea lotus is EGYPTIAN LOTUS. Nelumbo lutea was introduced (and has spread) in Concord after Thoreau's time.

189. Included here would be Lycopodium tristachyum (GROUND CEDAR) and Lycopodium sabinaefolium (SAVIN­IEAVED CLUBMOSS), not clearly distinguished in the manuals used by Thoreau. The latter species is unknown in the Concord area. Citation XIV 27 is the only one that might refer to L. sabinaefolium.

190. Included here would be Lycopus uniflorus (NORTHERN BUGLEWEED), not distinguished in the manuals used by Thoreau.

191. Lysimachia lanceolata in Thoreau's time included Lysimachia hybrida as a variety. Lysimachia lanceolata in the restricted modern sense is not known in New England.

192. The citation almost certainly refers to Majorana hortensis (SWEET MARJORAM).

193. Although "meadow­grass" can be used in a limited sense for Poa spp. (MEADOW­GRASS), Thoreau's use appears to be generalized as indicated by citation XII 204. Only sample citations are given.

194. The common species in Concord is Thalictrum polygamum (TALL MEADOW­RUE).

195. This was the only species of this genus known in Concord until 1900.

196. Mentha cardiaca (SMALL­LEAVED MINT) and Mentha gentilis (SPOTTED MINT), not distinguished in the manuals used by Thoreau, would be included here. Neither has been recorded in Concord, but each might occur.

197. It is not clear for this citation whether Thoreau mistakenly equates the name "Menziesia caerulea" with Diapensia lapponica (DIAPENSIA), or whether he inserts the name to remind himself that the same locality data apply to the Phyllodoce caerulea (MOUNTAIN HEATH), or possibly to indicate uncertainty about the identity of the plant.

198. Mentha arvensis (WILD MINT) appears to be the only species that fits the context of this citation.

199. It is uncertain whether Thoreau refers to Phoradendron flavescens (AMERICAN MISTLETOE) or Viscum album (EUROPEAN MISTLETOE).

200. This name is usually applied to Viburnum edule (SQUASHBERRY, MOOSE- BE RRY).

201. Most, if not all, of the citations refer to Convolvulus sepium (HEDGE BINDWEED).

202. The specimen in Thoreau's herbarium that he applied this name to appears to be correctly identified. However, this species has not been recorded in the Concord area and is unlikely to be native to the area.

203. Included here would be Muhlenbergia frondosa (SATIN GRASS), not distinguished in the manuals used by Thoreau. The specimens in Thoreau's herbarium indicate that he was familiar only with Muhlenbergia mexicana in the restricted modern sense.

204. This is most probably Myosotis verna (SPRING FORGET­ME­NOT).

205. Most of the citations appear to refer to Spiranthes spp. (LADIES'­TRESSES). Citation III 476 is the only clear reference to Goodyera spp. (RATTLESNAKEPLANTAIN).

206. This is a genus of fossil seed ferns that dates from the Devonian to the Triassic periods.

207. Solanum dulcamara (BITTER NIGHTSHADE) is the common species in Concord. Thoreau does not discover another Solanum in Concord until IX 88.

208. Nuphar advena in the restricted modern sense is not known in the Concord area.

209. Nymphaea tuberosa (TUBEROUS WATER LILY), not distinguished in Thoreau's time and which would be included here, has apparently invaded eastern Massachusetts only recently (twentieth century}.

210. These citations refer to oak galls formed by gall wasps (Cynipidae), especially those of the genus Amphibolips.

211. This citation refers to some oaks near which Thoreau found Gerardia virginica (DOWNY FALSE­FOXGLOVE).

212. Quercus lyrata (OVERCUP OAK) is not known in New England as a native tree and is rarely (if ever) planted in eastern Massachusetts.

213. This is the oak in which Charles II hid after the battle of Worcester (1651).

214. Citations referring to "shrub oaks" on a plain near the Cliffs (as on II 305, III 16,40,144,190,391, and IV 89) apply to sprout oaks of various species as Thoreau notes on IV 486. It appears that he applied this name in volumes I, II, and III to any shrub­like oak.

215. See in particular IV 486 for the use of "shrub oak" in this combination. The proper name "Shrub Oak Plain" occurs on IV 486, V 167, VIII 280, and XI 262.

216. This is a black oak (Quercus velutina) near which Thoreau found Solidago speciosa (SHOWY GOLDENROD) (Thoreau's "Solidago rigida"). See X 30.

217. Citation I 132 might refer to some other species of grass (e.g., Thoreau's "meadow oat­grass").

218. Thoreau later (XII 208) determined that the grass in question was Festuca spp. (FESCUE GRASS).

219. Included here would be Oenothera parviflora (SMALL­FLOWERED EVENING PRIMROSE) and Oenothera cruciata (CROSS­SHAPED EVENING PRIMROSE), considered varieties of one species in Gray's Manual of Botany (2nd ed.). The latter has not been recorded in Concord. O. biennis in the restricted modern sense is the common species in dry soil and waste places. O. parviflora is less common in Concord, occurring typically in moist places.

220. Oryzopsis canadensis in the restricted modern sense is not known in Massachusetts.

221. The context is not clear enough to determine whether Thoreau had in mind the European Viburnum lantana (WAYFARING TREE) or Viburnum alnifolium (HOBBLEBUSH), also known as AMERICAN WAYFARING TREE.

222. The name "osier" applies primarily to the flexible and seasonally bright colored branchlets of Salix alba (WHITE WILLOW) and Cornus stolonifera (RED­OSIER DOG WOOD), respectively yellow and red. It is likely that some citations refer to the similar species Salix babylonica (WEEPING WILLOW) and Cornus amomum (SILKY DOGWOOD).

223. The context of the citations indicates that Thoreau refers primarily (if not exclusively) to Chimaphila umbellata (PIPSISSEWA).

224. Thoreau uses this as a proper name. The citations are V 159,220, VI 324, VIII 356,357,358, IX 52,57,399, X 88,481, XI 158, and XIII 342,425.

225. The name "palm" applies to any member of the family Arecaceae (PALM FAMILY).

226. The name "panic" or "panic grass" as used in Thoreau's time would include Panicum spp. (PANIC GRASS), Digitaria spp. (CRAB GRASS), Echinocloa spp., and Setaria spp. (BRISTLY FOXTAIL).

227. Included under this name are five modern species. Of these only Panicum capillare (OLD WITCH GRASS) in the restricted modern sense and Panicum philadelphicum (WOOD WITCH GRASS) have been recorded in Concord. The former is the common species in New England. The specimen in Thoreau's herbarium associated with XI 145 has been identified as P. capillare in the restricted modern sense.

228. The specimen in Thoreau's herbarium associated with XI 141 has been identified as Panicum oligosanthes (FEW­FLOWERED PANIC GRASS), that associated with XI 150 has been identified as Panicum spretum (EATON'S PANIC GRASS).

229. Included here would be Panicum boscii (BOSC'S PANIC GRASS), not distinguished in the manuals used by Thoreau. It has not been recorded in Concord but might occur.

230. Citation IV 234 is either speculation based on the resemblance of Sium suave (WATER PARSNIP) to the poisonous Cicuta maculata (WATER HEMLOCK, SPOTTED COWBANE) or possibly a direct reference to this poisonous species (which is sometimes called "wild parsnip").

231. The particular species might be Artemisia caudata (TALL WORMWOOD), the only New England Artemisia species that typically occurs in sandy soil along the coast.

232. This is very likely a variation of the common name "juice pear."

233. This is a particular cultivar.

234. The common species in Concord is Phalaris arundinacea (REED CANARY­GRASS).

235. Bacon's History of Natick (Thoreau's source) reads "Xyris aquatica Mich. (yellow­eyed grass)." The stated author of the name, Andre Michaux, does not list this name in his Flora Boreali­Americana but does list Xyris jupacai. The name "Xyris aquatica" does not occur in any manual or modern synonymy. Bigelow's Florula Bostoniensis lists Xyris jupacai Mich. as the only species in the Boston vicinity. It is evident that "Xyris aquatica" is a spurious name and that "Xyris jupacai" was intended. Four species of Xyris are now distinguished in the Boston­Concord area.

236. This refers to pine seed.

237. This name refers to the fine­grained wood of especially fine, old specimens of Pinus strobus (EASTERN WHITE PINE), which has the property that it can be cut easily in any direction - like a pumpkin.

238. Of these two closely related species, Platanus acerifolia is the foreign plane-tree most commonly planted in New England.

239. Included here would be Plantago rugelii (RED­STEMMED PLANTAIN), not distinguished in the manuals used by Thoreau.

240. The context is not clear enough for these citations to determine the species with certainty, but Thoreau probably refers to Prunus domestica (GARDEN PLUM).

241. Polygonatum biflorum in the restricted modern sense is known in New England only in Connecticut.

242. Citation IV 310 is a misidentification. The plant in question is Streptopus spp. (TWISTED STALK).

243. Included here would be Polygonum coccineum (SWAMP SMARTWEED), not well distinguished from Polygonum amphibium (WATER SMARTWEED) in Thoreau's time. Additional confusion arises because of the aquatic and terrestrial forms of each species. Thoreau concludes correctly on X 21 that these forms do not constitute distinct varieties since they can occur in the same plant. P. coccineum is the common species. P. amphibium was uncommon in the Concord area in Thoreau's time. All of the citations indicate, or are consistent with, P. coccineum except the following: Citation IV 322 appears to correspond to P. amphibium in the modern sense. Citations II 425 and IV 247 might apply to either species.

244. These two species were not distinguished from each other in the manuals used by Thoreau. Polygonum scandens (CLIMBING FALSE BUCKWHEAT) is the common species in Concord.

245. The Polygonum specimen in Thoreau's herbarium that he labeled "front­rank" has been identified as Polygonum hydropiperoides (MILD WATER PEPPER). The few descriptive bits of information in the citations are consistent with this identification. Nonetheless, Thoreau distinguished front­rank polygonum from Polygonum hydropiperoides in his own mind. He did this primarily on the basis of flower color- consistently referring to the white flowers of P. hydropiperoides (which is not the typical color even according to his own Gray's Manual of Botany [2nd ed.]) as opposed to the rose­colored flowers of front rank polygonum (the typical color for P. hydropiperoides). Also, the leaves of front­rank polygonum are smaller and the plant grows lower and farther out into the water. None of these features are characters that separate species. It is evident that he was confused by two forms of the same species, a confusion that also occurs with respect to the other two aquatic Polygonum species (P. coccineum and P. amphibium).

246. This is most likely Polygonum robustius (STOUT SMARTWEED).

247. This group (apple family) is now included in Rosaceae (ROSE FAMILY).

248. Citations IV 149,169 probably refer, indeed, to Potamogeton natans (FLOATING PONDWEED).

249. Thoreau is mistaken either about the sex or the identity of the plant in question since staminate individuals of this hybrid are unknown.

250. This is probably Potamogeton natans (FLOATING PONDWEED) but might also be Potamogeton amplexifolius (LARGE­LEAVED PONDWEED).

251. On the basis of the description in Gray's Manual of Botany (2nd ed.), this name would best correspond to Potamogeton epihydrus (SURFACE PONDWEED) or Potamogeton gramineus (GRASS­LEAVED PONDWEED).

252. Included here would be Potamogeton oakesianus (OAKES' PONDWEED), not distinguished in Thoreau's time. It is less common in Concord than Potamogeton natans (FLOATING PONDWEED) in the restricted modern sense and occurs typically in ponds rather than streams.

253. This is a variety of the common cultivated potato. See the article by Duncan Porter in Taxon 31 (August 1982), p. 504 for identification.

254. Potentilla anserina in the restricted modern sense is not known in southeastern Massachusetts. Some modern authorities consider P. anserina and P. egedei to be varieties of the same species.

255. On the basis of Gray's Manual of Botany (2nd ed.), Potentilla simplex (COMMON CINQUEFOIL) would be included here, but the context of these citations indicates Potentilla canadensis (DWARF CINQUEFOIL) in the restricted modern sense.

256. The context of citation III 65 better fits Oenothera biennis (COMMON EVENING PRIMROSE) or Oenothera parviflora (SMALL­FLOWERED EVENING PRIMROSE).

257. The common species in Concord is Ilex verticillata (COMMON WINTERBERRY).

258. Ligustrum vulgare (COMMON PRIVET) is the most commonly planted species in New England and the one most frequently escaping to the wild.

259. Included here would be Proserpinaca intermedia, a rare species (or hybrid), not distinguished in Thoreau's time.

260. Included here would be Prunus nigra (CANADA PLUM), not distinguished from Prunus americana (AMERICAN PLUM) in the manuals used by Thoreau.

261. Included here would be Prunus susquehanae (SAND CHERRY), not distinguished from Prunus depressa (DWARF CHERRY) in the manuals used by Thoreau. Citations II 12 and IV 100 refer to P. susquehanae. Citations IX 75,499 refer to P. depressa in the restricted modern sense.

262. Citation II 266 evidently applies this name in the sense used by Bigelow which refers to Pyrola virens (GREENISH­FLOWERED PYROLA). Citation IV 129 is evidently a mistaken application of the name to Pyrola rotundifolia (ROUND­LEAVED PYROLA) since Pyrola asarifolia in the modern sense is unknown in eastern Massachusetts.

263. Thoreau applies this name primarily to CHOKEBERRY (Pyrus spp.) and occasionally to SHADBUSH (Amelanchier spp.). Citation II 211 refers to APPLE, CRABAPPLE (Pyrus spp.). Modern use also includes MOUNTAIN­ASH under this genus name.

264. Pyrus melanocarpa (BLACK CHOKEBERRY) and Pyrus floribunda (PURPLE CHOKEBERRY) were not distinguished as species in the manuals used by Thoreau (or by some modern authorities). Pyrus arbutifolia (RED CHOKEBERRY) in the restricted modern sense is unknown in the Concord area.

265. The name corresponds to Amelanchier sanguinea (ROUNDLEAF SHADBUSH), which is unknown in eastern Massachusetts. The identity of the plant is clearly Amelanchier stolonifera (RUNNING SHADBUSH).

266. Included here would be Quercus marilandica (BLACKJACK OAK), not distinguished in the manuals used by Thoreau. Neither species is known in New England.

267. Included here would be Senecio pauperculus (BALSAM RAGWORT) and Senecio obovata (ROUND­LEAVED RAGWORT), not distinguished in the manuals used by Thoreau. Both occur in eastern Massachusetts but have not been recorded in Concord.

268. Included here would be Ranunculus allegheniensis (ALLEGHENY CROWFOOT), not distinguished in Thoreau's time, and Ranunculus micranthus (ROCK CROWFOOT), considered a variety of R. abortivus in Gray's Manual of Botany (2nd ed.). Neither has been recorded in Concord.

269. This is a mistranscription of "Ranunculus reptans var. filiformis."

270. This is probably Ranunculus flabellaris (YELLOW WATER BUTTERCUP).

271. The common species in Concord is Goodyera pubescens (DOWNY RATTLE SNAKE­PLANTAIN).

272. This particular citation refers to Rhododendron maximum (ROSEBAY RHODODENDRON).

273. Citation XI 288 would not apply to Rosa carolina (PASTURE ROSE), which occurs in dry habitats.

274. This is evidently a type of algae, most likely Chorda filum.

275. This name corresponds to several trailing or low­arching species and not to Rubus canadensis in the modern sense. The most common species in the group that occurs in Concord is Rubus flagellaris (NORTHERN DEWBERRY).

276. Rubus frondosus (LEAFY­BRACTED BLACKBERRY) in the restricted modern sense is unknown in the Concord area.

277. Rudbeckia hirta (BLACK­EYED SUSAN) in the restricted modern sense is unknown in eastern Massachusetts.

278. The common species in Concord is Thalictrum polygamum (TALL MEADOW RUE).

279. Thoreau applied this name primarily to Scirpus spp. (BULRUSH) and Juncus spp. (RUSH), but occasionally to other genera such as Equisetum hyemale (SCOURING RUSH) (VII 81) and Cladium mariscoides (TWIG­RUSH) (XI 139). Because of the generality of this name citations were not collected.

280. This name would apply to any of three species in Concord: Juncus tenuis (YARD RUSH), Juncus platyphyllus, or Juncus secundus.

281. This probably refers to Scirpus validus (GREAT BULRUSH).

282. Salix cordata in the restricted modern sense is unknown in the Concord area.

283. Salix eriocephala in the modern sense is unknown in New England.

284. Salix repens in the modern sense is a Eurasian species.

285. This is a hybrid between Salix alba (WHITE WILLOW) and Salix fragilis (CRACK WILLOW).

286. In Thoreau's time this name could apply to Scirpus spp. (BULRUSH), Bulbostylis capillaris, Fimbristylis autumnalis, or Eleocharis spp. (SPIKE­RUSH).

287. This name corresponds in New England to three species not distinguished in Thoreau's time: Scirpus purshianus (PURSH'S CLUB RUSH), Scirpus smithii (SMITH'S CLUB RUSH), and Scirpus hallii (HALL'S CLUB RUSH). Of these only S. purshianus has yet been recorded in Concord.

288. This name in New England corresponds to five species not distinguished in Thoreau's time. Of these only Scirpus cyperinus (COMMON WOOL­GRASS), Scirpus atrocinctus (DUSKY WOOL­GRASS), and Scirpus longii (LONG'S WOOL­GRASS) are known in Concord.

289. Included here would be Scirpus acutus (HARD­STEM BULRUSH), not distinguished in Thoreau's time and not recorded in Concord but which might occur there.

290. Included here would be two additional species not distinguished in Thoreau's time: Scirpus robustus (STOUT BULRUSH) and Scirpus paludosus (BAYONETGRASS). The citation most likely refers to S. paludosus or S. maritimus in the restricted modern sense.

291. This name in New England corresponds to three species not distinguished in Thoreau's time: Scirpus rubrotinctus (RED BULRUSH), Scirpus atrovirens (DUSKY BULRUSH), and Scirpus expansus (WOODLAND BULRUSH). However, the specimen in Thoreau's herbarium, labeled by him "Scirpus sylvaticus, Great Meadows, May 28," has been identified as Scirpus longii (LONG'S WOOL­GRASS).

292. Thoreau evidently was unable to distinguish these two species until XIII 244.

293. Included here would be Sedum purpureum (LIVE­FOREVER), not distinguished in the manuals used by Thoreau and not distinguished from Sedum telephium (LIVEFOREVER) by many modern botanists.

294. "Senelle" or "cenelle" is French for the fruit of HAWTHORN. The Canadianism is actually "cenellier" or "senellier."

295. One of the specimens in the Thoreau herbarium labeled by him as this species has been identified as Sericocarpus linifolius (NARROW­LEAVED WHITE­TOPPED ASTER).

296. This name was sometimes applied to a wide­leaved form that is not now considered to be a separate species.

297. In Thoreau's time these were usually included in the same genus.

298. Thoreau questions his own use of this name. He apparently applied it either to Smilacina racemosa (FALSE SOLOMON'S­SEAL) or to Streptopus spp. (TWISTED STALK).

299. This name refers to the family of ferns Ophioglossaceae (ADDER'S­TONGUE FAMILY) in which Lygodium palmatum (CLIMBING FERN) was at one time included.

300. This particular citation refers to Solanum dulcamara (BITTER NIGHTSHADE).

301. Included here would be Solanum americanum (AMERICAN NIGHTSHADE), not distinguished in the manuals used by Thoreau. The specimen in Thoreau's herbarium to which he assigned this name has been identified as S. americanum.

302. This is an evident mistranscription of "Solidago altissima" (old usage).

303. This correspondence is made on the basis of descriptions in Gray's Manual of Botany (2nd and 8th eds.).

304. Included here would be Solidago altissima (TALL GOLDENROD), not distinguished in the manuals used by Thoreau.

305. This species is unknown in eastern Massachusetts. The specimen in Thoreau's herbarium to which he applied this name has been identified as Solidago speciosa (SHOWY GOLDENROD).

306. This species is unknown in New England. It is evident that Thoreau applied this name to Solidago juncea (EARLY GOLDENROD), owing to a statement about the early flowering time of Solidago stricta in Gray's Manual of Botany (2nd ed.) and certain other superficial resemblances between the two species.

307. Included here would be Solidago elliottii (ELLIOTT'S GOLDENROD), not distinguished in the manuals used by Thoreau and not recorded in Concord but which might occur there.

308. This name corresponds to Solidago stricta (WAND­LIKE GOLDENROD), which is unknown in New England. The context indicates that the plant in question is probably Solidago juncea (EARLY GOLDENROD).

309. This is a corruption of "sops in wine" -- a type of APPLE (Pyrus malus).

310. Included here would be Sparganium androcladum (BRANCHING BUR­REED), not distinguished in Thoreau's time.

311. Spartina cynosuroides (SALT REED­GRASS) in the restricted modern sense is limited in Massachusetts to the vicinity of Cape Cod and Nantucket.

312. Included here would be Spiranthes lacera (NORTHERN SLENDER LADIES'. TRESSES), not distinguished in the manuals used by Thoreau and not distinguished by some modern botanists.

313. References to native spruce in Concord are to Picea mariana (BLACK SPRUCE) almost certainly without exception. The two known instances of Picea rubens (RED SPRUCE) found in Concord are in situations that suggest introduction after Thoreau's time. P. rubens was not distinguished in Thoreau's time.

314. This name corresponds to Picea glauca (WHITE SPRUCE), but Thoreau applies it in error to Picea mariana (BLACK SPRUCE). See note 313.

315. Citations II 199, V 430, IX 378,414,494, and X (24) are the only ones that actually refer to Picea glauca (WHITE SPRUCE). The others are misidentifications of Picea mariana (BLACK SPRUCE). See note 313.

316. The abundant species in Concord is Stellaria media (COMMON CHICKWEED).

317. Thoreau applied this name to Stellaria graminea (LESSER STITCHWORT), which is abundant in New England. Stellaria longifolia has not been recorded in Concord.

318. This species is not known in New England. It most closely resembles Stellaria graminea (LESSER STITCHWORT).

319. English sweet­briar was at one time considered a separate species (Rosa rubiginosa) but is now not considered distinct from Rosa eglanteria (SWEET­BRIER).

320. Included here would be Symphytum asperum (ROUGH COMFREY), not distinguished in the manuals used by Thoreau.

321. This is almost certainly Pyrus angustifolia (SOUTHERN CRABAPPLE), whose leaves, unlike those of most crabapples, are often evergreen. The name "tea­tree" is more often applied in the United States to Ilex vomitoria (YAUPON) which has evergreen leaves but is not an apple tree and reaches its northern limit of distribution in southeastern Virginia.

322. Included here would be Viburnum opulus (GUELDER.ROSE), a very similar species from Europe not distinguished in the manuals used by Thoreau. It is an infrequent escape in Concord. The two species are considered varieties of a single species by some modern botanists.

323. In Concord the recorded species of this subgroup of Scirpus (BULRUSH) are S. cyperinus, S. atrocinctus, and S. longii.

324. Triglochin palustris is known in New England only in Maine. Thoreau misapplies this name to the common Triglochin maritimum (SEASIDE ARROW GRASS).

325. Triosteum perfoliatum (WILD COFFEE) in the restricted modern sense is unknown in the Concord area.

326. The identity of this citation is determined by reference to later citations XIV 55,75,158, where Thoreau correctly distinguishes the grainfield weed Brassica napus (TURNIP) from the similar and more common Brassica rapa (FIELD MUSTARD) (or B. campestris).

327. Urtica gracilis (SLENDER NETTLE) in the restricted modern sense is not known in eastern Massachusetts. Citation IX 79 is the only one that might possibly refer to the modern Urtica gracilis.

328. This subfamily of Ericaceae (HEATH FAMILY) included Vaccinium spp. (BLUEBERRY, CRANBERRY), Gaylussacia spp. (HUCKLEBERRY), and Gaultheria hispidula (CREEPING SNOWBERRY).

329. Vicia cracca (COW VETCH) was the common species in Concord in Thoreau's time.

330. Viburnum dentatum in the restricted modern sense is unknown in the Concord area.

331. As a wild plant this species in New England is restricted to southwestern Connecticut. The identity of the plant for citation VI 445 is Viburnum cassinoides (WITHE­ROD).

332. Included here would be Viola pallens (NORTHERN WHITE VIOLET) and Viola incognita (LARGE­LEAVED WHITE VIOLET), not distinguished in the manuals used by Thoreau. V. pallens is the common species in the Concord area. V. blanda in the restricted modern sense and V. incognita are rare in the Concord area.

333. Included here would be Viola papilionacea (COMMON BLUE VIOLET), not distinguished in the manuals used by Thoreau. Both species are common in the Concord area.

334. Viola sagittata (ARROW­LEAVED VIOLET), which would also be included here, is as yet unrecorded in Concord.

335. Included here would be Viola brittoniana (COAST VIOLET) and Viola triloba (THREE­LOBED VIOLET), not distinguished in the manuals used by Thoreau. The context of the citations indicates that V. brittoniana is the species referred to. V. palmata in the restricted modern sense and V. triloba are as yet unrecorded in Concord.

336. Included here would be Viola pensylvanica (SMOOTH YELLOW VIOLET), not distinguished in the manuals used by Thoreau and not distinguished by some modern botanists. Both species are relatively rare in the Concord area as native plants.

337. Included here would be Viola fimbriatula (OVATE­LEAVED VIOLET). V. sagittata in the restricted modern sense is as yet unrecorded in Concord.

338. This reference, if not a mistranscription, probably represents a slip of thought - Thoreau thinking of the fleur­de­lis emblem but writing "acanthus," which refers to another stylized plant with a recurved aspect. If this is so, the plant in question is Iris versicolor (LARGER BLUE FLAG), which would be in blossom on the date of the citation. This writer is not sufficiently equipped olfactorily to confirm the particular scent Thoreau refers to.

339. Included here would be Amaranthus graecizans (TUMBLEWEED), not distinguished in the manuals used by Thoreau.

340. Included here would also be Oxalis stricta (in the restricted modern sense), O. filipes, and O. florida. These, along with O. europaea, were not distinguished from O. stricta in the manuals used by Thoreau. Of these only O. europaea, the common yellow species in New England, has yet been recorded in Concord.

341. The "red oak" of Joe Hosmer is evidently Quercus velutina (BLACK OAK), the bark of which is unusually rich in tannic acid. Q. velutina is often lumped with other oaks as "red oak" by lumbermen.

342. The name "Sparganium minor" is not a published botanical name. It is a name coined by Rev. John Russell, a professor of botany, while meeting with Thoreau on August 18, 1854 (VI 450) in describing one of Thoreau's Sparganium specimens found in Concord, Massachusetts. Based upon the features of the plant mentioned, the plant could be either Sparganium americanum or Sparganium chlorocarpum, both known from Concord. Thoreau uses the made-up name later only once, on September 5, 1854 (VII 13).

343. The species Amaranthus hypochondriacus is an uncommon escape that is native to southwestern North America. It was distinguished in the first (1848) and second (1856) editions of Gray's Manual used by Thoreau, but many manuals after Thoreau's time treated it as a form of the common, native Amaranthus hybridus. It is not distinguished at all in Gray's Manual of Botany 8th ed. (1950), but is currently recognized. A specimen in Thoreau's herbarium labeled with this name by him has only recently been confirmed to be this species and is the only known voucher for its occurrence in Concord, Massachusetts. His Journal reference at IV 351 has the proper description and habitat to be this species.

344. The species Prenanthes trifoliata was not distinguished from Prenanthes alba in the manuals used by Thoreau.

345. It is uncertain to which species Thoreau applies the names Aster carneus and Aster salicifolius, but most likely to Aster simplex of Gray's Manual 8th ed.

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http://www.ray-a.com/ThoreauBotIdx/BI-Notes.htm -- Revised: Oct. 18, 2013

Created by: Ray Angelo
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