The following works are comparatively non-technical and should prove
to be the ones most useful for the lay person interested in becoming acquainted
with the plants of New England to which Thoreau refers:
Angelo, Ray. 1990. Concord Area Trees and Shrubs. Museum of Comparative Zoology, Harvard University, Cambridge, MA. (free online at: http://www.ray-a.com/ConcordAreaTrees&Shrubs/
Cobb, Boughton, Cheryl Lowe, and Elizabeth Farnsworth. 2005. Peterson Guide to Ferns, Northeastern and Central North America, 2nd ed.. Houghton Mifflin Harcourt, Boston.
Dame, Lorin L., and Henry Brooks. 1972. Handbook of the Trees of New England. Dover Publications, Ind. (reprint of 1904 publication), New York. (free online at: http://archive.org/details/handbooktreesne00broogoog
Newcomb, Lawrence. 1977. Newcomb's Wildflower Guide. Little, Brown, and Co., Boston.
Peterson, Roger Tory, and Margaret McKenny. 1968. A Field Guide to Wildflowers of Northeastern and North-Central North America. Houghton Mifflin Co., Boston.
Petrides, George A. 1972. A Field Guide to Trees and Shrubs. 2nd ed. Houghton Mifflin Co., Boston.
Symonds, George W. D. 1958. The Tree Identification Book. William Morrow & Co., New York.
Symonds, George W. D. 1963. The Shrub Identification Book.
William Morrow & Co., New York.
For those who wish to consult more complete and technical references,
the standard manuals are:
Eaton, Richard Jefferson. 1974. A Flora of Concord. Museum of Comparative Zoology, Harvard University, Cambridge, MA. (free online at: http://archive.org/details/floraofconcordac00eato
Fernald, Merritt Lyndon. 1950. Gray's Manual of Botany. 8th ed. Van Nostrand Reinhold Co., New York.
Flora of North America Editorial Committee, eds. 1993 - . Flora of North America. Volumes 1- . Oxford University Press, New York. (text, not illustrations, of published volumes free online at: http://www.efloras.org/flora_page.aspx?flora_id=1
Gleason, Henry A. 1952. The New Britton and Brown Illustrated Flora of the Northeastern United States and Adjacent Canada. 3 vols. Hafner Publishing Co., New York.
Gleason, Henry A., and Arthur Cronquist. 1991. Manual of Vascular Plants of Northeastern United States and Adjacent Canada. 2nd ed. D. Van Nostrand Co., Princeton, NJ.
Seymour, Frank Conkling. 1982. The Flora of New England. 2nd
ed. as Phytologia Memoirs V. Harold N. Moldenke &
Alma L. Moldenke, Plainfield, NJ.
(free online at: http://archive.org/details/floraofnewenglan00seym
Current technical references for the flora of Concord and New England with modern nomenclature are:,
Angelo, Ray. 2012 - . Vascular Flora of Concord, Massachusetts. Free online and frequently updated at: http://www.ray-a.com/ConcordMassFlora.pdf
Angelo, Ray and David E. Boufford. 1996 - . Atlas of the Flora of New England. Free online at: http://neatlas.org/
Haines, Arthur. 2011. Flora Novae Angliae. Yale University Press, New Haven, CT.
Historical manuals used by Thoreau are:
Bigelow, Jacob. 1840. Florula Bostoniensis 3rd ed. Charles C. Little and James Brown, Boston. (free online at: http://archive.org/details/florulabostonienbige)
Dewey, Chester. 1840. Report on the Herbaceous Flowering Plants of Massachusetts. Folsom, Wells and Thurston, Cambridge, MA. (free online at: http://archive.org/details/reportsma00mass)
Eaton, Amos. 1824. Manual of Botany for Northern and Middle States of America. 4th ed. Websters and Skinners, Albany, New York. (free online at: https://www.biodiversitylibrary.org/item/84285#page/9/mode/1up)
Emerson, George B. 1846. A Report on the Trees and Shrubs Growing Naturally in the Forests of Massachusetts. Dutton and Wentworth, State Printers, Boston. (free online at: http://books.google.com/books?id=fpsYAAAAYAAJ)
Gray, Asa. 1848. A Manual of the Botany of the Northern United States (1st ed.) James Munroe and Company, Boston & Cambridge, MA.
(free online at:
Gray, A. 1856. Manual of the Botany of the Northern United States (2nd ed.). George P. Putnam & Company, New York. (free online at: http://books.google.com/books?id=ZszyVtSSMDEC&oe=UTF-8)
Michaux, François. A. 1819. The North American Sylva, vols. I, II, III. C. D'Hautel, Paris. (free online at: http://www.biodiversitylibrary.org/bibliography/42243#/)
Torrey, John. 1826. Compendium of the Flora of the Northern and Middle States. Stacy B. Collins, New York. [free online at: http://www.biodiversitylibrary.org/bibliography/6147#/]
Torrey, John and Asa Gray. 1838-1840. A Flora of North America, volume I. Wiley & Putnam, New York. [free online at: http://www.biodiversitylibrary.org/bibliography/9466#/]
Torrey, John and Asa Gray. 1841-1843. A Flora of North America, volume II. Wiley & Putnam, New York. [free online at: http://www.biodiversitylibrary.org/bibliography/9466#/]
Excellent free online versions of the 1906 edition of Thoreau's Journal are at:
Thoreau, Henry D. 1906. Journal. Houghton Mifflin Co., Boston.
and [a beautiful (and searchable) special limited edition (600 printed)] at:
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-- Revised: Nov. 20, 2019
Created by: Ray Angelo